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Egypt

Basic Economic Summary

Egypt is a developing country that is known to have a diversified economy. The economy ranks the second-largest country in Africa and 20th-largest country globally with regards to PPP. Egypt's economy heavily relies on agriculture, media, natural gas, petroleum imports, and tourism with more than 3 million of its population working abroad. Having these industries contribute to the economy’s GDP, Egypt is an ideal country to grow your business and employ individuals with proven skillsets in these areas.

Overview

  • Local Languages: Arabic, English
  • Capital: Cairo
  • Major Economic Hubs: Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Alexandria
  • Currency: Egyptian Pound
  • Population (2021): 104.99 million
  • Time Zone: UTC+2 (EGY)
  • Date Format: dd/mm/yyyy

Useful Information

  • GDP Per Capita (in USD): 3,561 
  • Exchange Rate (EGP/USD): 0.064

Local Universities

Top Local Universities

University Rankings
American University in Cairo Ranking in Egypt: 4, World Ranking: 1210
Cairo University Ranking in Egypt: 1, World Ranking: 533
Ain Shams University Ranking in Egypt: 5, World Ranking: 1279
Alexandria University Ranking in Egypt: 2, World Ranking: 840
Mansoura University Ranking in Egypt: 3, World Ranking: 1011

Salary Data

Average Salary of Jobs (Per Month)

The table below shows the average salaries of some jobs in Egypt. Please refer to SalaryExplorer for more information.

Job Title Average Salary Range (EGP) Average Salary Range (USD)
Surgeons/ Doctors 18,500 - 51,700 1178.53 - 3293.51
Judges 15,500 - 43,400 987.42 - 2764.76
Bank Managers 11,800 - 33,100 751.71 - 2108.61
Chief Executive Officer 11,100 - 31,000 707.12 - 1974.83
Chief Financial Officer 10,300 - 28,900 656.15 - 1841.05
Orthodontist 9,980 - 27,900 635.77 - 1777.35
College Professors 8,870 - 24,800 565.06 - 1579.87


Talent Sourcing Tips

Taxes

Employer Payroll Tax

The employer payroll tax is calculated as follows:

Category Rate (EGP)
Social Security Contribution 18.75% (Minimum wage: 1200, Maximum wage: 8,100)

Employee Payroll Tax

The employee payroll tax is calculated as follows:

Category Rate (EGP)
Social Security Contribution 11% (Minimum wage: 1200, Maximum wage: 8,100)

Employee Monthly Income Tax

Income tax is levied annually as follows:

Earned Income Tax Rate (%)
From 0 to 15,000 0
15,000 to 30,000 2.5
30,000 to 45,000 10.0
45,000 to 60,000 15.0
60,000 to 200,000 20.0
200,000 to 400,000 22.5
More than 400,000 25.0

The employee income tax rates can be found here.

Minimum Wage & Payroll

Minimum Wage

Their minimum official wage is EGP 2000 per month.

Payroll Cycle

The employee must be paid monthly. Usually, on the 5th of every month.

Bonus

13th month salary

There is no provision for the 13th month salary in Egypt.

Employee Stock Option

Egypt does not have any provisions for employee stock options in Egypt. However, it can be provided by employers for the employees as a part of incentive as agreed upon through an employment contract. 

General information about the employee stock option in Egypt can be found here.

Working Hours & Statutory Leave

Working hours

The typical number of working hours in Egypt is 40 hours a week.

Overtime pay

In terms of overtime, day time overtime shall be charged at 35% of the normal working hours wage and night time overtime shall be charged at 70% of the normal working hours wage.

Public Holidays

Number of public holidays is 20 days. The list of holidays can be found here.

Leaves

Annual Paid Leave

The number of paid leave days entitled to employees is 21, it increases to one month after 10 years of employment.

Sick Leave

Every worker is entitled to 6 months of paid sick leave. They are entitled to receive 75% of their salary for the first 90 days, 85% of their salary for the next 90 days and if required, could also convert their annual leave to sick leave. 

Parental Leave

Female employees who have been working for over 10 months are entitled to 90 days of paid maternity leave and 45 days after the birth of her child. A female employee is generally entitled to take two maternity leaves during their employment. While working, the female employee is also allowed 2 and a half hours nursing breaks a day for 24 hours after the birth of the child. Both parents are entitled to leave in the context of childbirth or adoption.

For maternity leave, the pregnant mother is entitled to 4 weeks of leave before the expected due date and is obliged to take 2 weeks after delivery. She is also entitled to a further 12 weeks 

Paternity Leave is also allowed of upto 2 weeks within the first 14 weeks after delivery.

Offboarding & Termination

Termination Process

Termination in Egypt is only allowed on the grounds of fundamental breach of contract which is outlined as follows:

  • False Identification
  • Consecutive Absence
  • Professional Incompetence
  • Violation of safety instructions

Notice Period

An employee is entitled to 60 days notice for dismissal if the employee has been in employment for less than 10 years and 90 days if the employee has been employed for over 10 years.

Severance Pay

There is no statutory severance pay mentioned unless mentioned in the contract.

Probation period

The probation labour contract should not exceed three months.

Insurance

It is not mandatory for employers to provide insurance for their employees in Egypt. However,  the Egyptian Parliament issued a new Social Insurance Scheme that regulates and unifies all rules and regulations relating to pensions and employees' rights. 

The Social Insurance Scheme has set up unemployment insurance as a new privilege for those who become unemployed during their coverage period that covers anywhere between 3 to 7 months. The insurance amount shall be paid for 12 weeks for employees who have contributed for a period not less than 36 months (3 years) and 28 weeks for employees who have contributed for a period that exceeds 36 months.

Further information on the contribution rates can be found here.

VAT

The VAT rate in Egypt is 14% with a reduced rate of 5% for certain industries.

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